Ornis Hungarica. vol.2. (1992) p.61-66.
Breeding biology of Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) in alkaline grassland
Breeding biology of Lapwings was studied in a Hungarian alkaline grassland in 1990 and 1991. 22-25 pairs of Lapwings bred on the study site (70 ha) in both years and the breeding density was 0.31-0.36 pairs per ha. Vegetation cover ranged from 20% to 100% and the height of plants was typically 5-12cm around the nests. Clutch size was 3.8±0.5 (mean±SD),egg size was 45.4±1.3 x 32.7±0.8 mm. Egg size was smaller than those of West European populations, and similar to the size of East and South-East European populations. Lapwings bred in higher densities in pasture (0.57 and 0.78 nest per ha) than in hayfield (0.19 and 0.35 nest per ha). Hatching success was 51.5% and 55.6% in 1990 and 1991, respectively. The most frequent reason of failure was predation, particulary by birds (Magpie Pica pica, Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus, Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus) although mammals e.g, small mammals, straying dogs also took a heavy toll.